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Phono Processes

Substitution Process:

When one sound is substituted by another sound in a systematic fashion

Phonological Process Definition Age Example
Affrication Fricatives are replaced by affricates 3;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[dɔr] -> [jɔr]
Alveolarization Non alveolar sound is replaced with an alveolar sound 5;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[ʃu] -> [tu]
Backing Sounds are substituted or replaced by segments produced posterior to , or further back in, the oral cavity than the standard production No information available [sɪp] ->[ʃɪp]
Deaffrication Affricates are realized as fricatives 4;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[tʃɪp] -> [ʃɪp]
Depalatization Palatal sounds are realized as sounds produced further forward in the oral cavity 5;0 [fɪʃ] -> [fɪt]
Fronting Velars are realized as sounds produced further forward in the oral cavity 3;6
[go] -> [do]
Gliding of liquids Liquids /l,r/ are replaced by a glide /w,j/ or another liquid 5;0
[lif] -> [wif]
Labialization Nonlabial sound is replaced with a labial sound 6;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[taɪ] -> [paɪ]
Stopping Fricatives and/or affricates are realized as stops 5;0
[piʧ] -> [pit]
Vocalization Liquids or nasals are replaced by vowels /f/&/s/ =3;0
/v/ & /z/ =3;6
[teɪbəl] -> [tebo]
Denasalization Nasals are replaced by homorganic stops 2;6
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[naɪs] -> [daɪs]
Glottal replacement Glottal stops replace sounds usually in either intervocalic or final position No information available Tooth->
Prevocalic voicing Voiceless consonants in the prevocalic position are voiced 3;0
[teɪbəl] -> [debi]
Devoicing of final consonants Voiced obstruents are devoiced in final position 3;0
[dɔg] -> [dɔk]



When one sound in the word becomes similar to another sound in the word

Phonological Process Definition Age Example
Assimilation (consonant harmony) One sound is replaced by another that is the same or similar to another sound within the word 3;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[dɔg] ->[dɔd]
Velar Assimilation A nonvelar sound is assimilated to a velar sound because of the influence, or
dominance, of a velar
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[dʌk] -> [gʌk]
Nasal Assimilation A non-nasal sound is assimilated and replaced by a nasal because of the influence, or dominance, of a nasal consonant 3;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[læm] -> [næm]
Labial Assimilation A nonlabial sound is assimilated to a labial consonant because of the influence of a labial consonant. 3;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[bɛd] -> [bɛb]
Alveolar Assimilation Non-alveolar sound is changed to an alveolar sound 3;0
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[tos] -> [tot]


Syllable Structure /Patterns:

Phonological processes that affect the syllable structure

Phonological Process Definition Age Example
Consonant Cluster Reduction Deletion of one element of the cluster 4;0
[stɑp] -> [tɑp]
Epenthesis A segment, often the unstressed vowel, is inserted 8
(Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2007)
[blæk] ->[ bəlæk]
Reduplication A syllable or a portion of a syllable is repeated or duplicated, usually becoming CVCV 3;0
[dæd] -> [dæ dæ]
Weak/Unstressed Syllable Deletion Deletion of the unstressed syllable 4;0
[tɛləfon] -> [tɛfon]
Final Consonant Deletion Deletion of the final consonant in the word 3;3
(open and closed)
[kæp] ->[ kæ]
Consonant Cluster Simplification A consonant cluster is simplified by a substitution for one member of the cluster 4;0
Metathesis There is a transposition or reversal of two segments (sounds) in a word No information available [bæskət] -> [bæksɪt]
Coalescence Characteristics of features from two adjacent sounds are combined so that one sound replaces two other sounds No information available [swɪm] ->[ fɪm]